Neil Segal, MD, MS
Dr. George Varghese Professor of Rehabilitation Medicine
Director of Clinical Research
Medical Director of Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
Department of Rehabilitation Medicine
University of Kansas Medical Center
INTRODUCTION: Meniscal extrusion may be missed on non-weight-bearing MRI. Failure to detect meniscal extrusion has hampered development of effective therapies for osteoarthritis (OA) prevention. Weight-Bearing CT (WBCT) has been found to be more sensitive and accurate for other knee OA features, and more accurate assessment of meniscal damage could potentially improve prediction of worsening joint structure and pain.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the rate of detection and severity of meniscal extrusions visualized on WBCT vs. on MRI in older adults with or at elevated risk for knee OA.
METHODS: Ancillary to the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study (MOST), a longitudinal study of knee OA in older Americans, fixed-flexion knee images were acquired using a prototype WBCT scanner. A 3D dataset with an isotropic resolution of 0.37mm was reconstructed from cone beam projections. MRI was acquired using a 1.5T peripheral scanner with participants seated and the knee semi-flexed. Radiologists, blinded to patient identifiers, scored meniscal extrusion severity on each modality (0/1/2/3). Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grade of knee OA was collected as part of MOST.
RESULTS: Of 864 participants with WBCT imaging of the knees, 284 had MRI read for meniscal extrusion. WBCT detected extrusion not detected on MRI in 27.1% of medial and 8.5% of lateral menisci and higher grades of extrusion for 30.6% of medial and 8.8% of lateral menisci (full results in Tables 1 & 2). Knees with greater medial and lateral extrusions visualized on WBCT were predominantly those with early OA (KL<2 for 80.5% and 64% respectively). An example case in which meniscal extrusion visualization differed between modalities is included in Figure 1.
CONCLUSION: WBCT detects meniscal extrusions not detected on standard MRI. Detection of this risk factor for OA progression people with early disease supports a need to assess longitudinal associations between meniscal extrusion detected on WBCT and worsening of pain and joint structure.
SPONSOR: NIH-NIAMS R01 AR071648, NIH-NIA U01 AG018832, U01 AG19069
Andy Kin On Wong, PhD
Scientist, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, UHN
Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) has been used to measure subchondral BMD of the knee.
Although pQCT model XCT2000 has a limited gantry diameter, it can still accommodate most individuals with BMI≤ 30 kg/m2. XCT3000 has a larger gantry able to accommodate most knees even for individuals with higher BMI.
Bennell previously examined subchondral BMD at the 2% and 4% tibial plateau relative to a reference line placed at a level between medial and lateral tibial compartments’ most radio-opaque plateau regions. No femoral condyles were examined, and if compartments were misaligned from the scanner’s Z-axis, the compartment-specific analyses would be oblique.
Whyte presented alternative protocols suggesting 4 individual reference lines for each of medial and lateral tibial and femoral condyles, then using 1% relative distance for tibial plateaus and 2% relative distance for femoral condyles – to account for differences in regions of interests.
Subchondral regions of interests marked by periosteal perimeters inset by 20% and total BMD computed to yield subchondral BMD for each compartment.
The results of test-retest precision for Protocol 3 applied to healthy and diseased patients, demonstrating sufficient test-retest precision for subchondral BMD measurements overall: